# Blue Sky

### Blue Sky Research: Plenum physics (ZPE) has been the leading edge in energetics, but the next paradigm shift could be the uniform expansion theory, Scale Expanding Cosmos (SEC).

**COMING ATTRACTIONS ~**

**WILD BLUE YONDER**

There are major theoretical problems that modern physics doesn't handle very well. Our models of the quantum level and cosmology still do not match. Physicists (Goldes, 2005) have recently discovered anomalies that mean the universe contains previously undiscovered particles. The Standard Model is flawed, and we are uncertain how to describe gravity at the smallest scale. Big questions include the nature and types of subatomic particles, virtual particles, antimatter, mass-energy conversion, the nature of time, and the expanding universe.

What are electrons? Why do they exist and how are they made? Why does their structure expand? Are quarks fundamental or composites? There might be undiscovered species of protons and photons. How is a proton or neutron created from electrons? How many dimensions are required to model this emergent process? What is the source and meaning of motion? Is spacetime itself expanding, or every material thing, or maybe both?

Standard theory says space is expanding at a constant rate but space has no mass to move relative to itself. So what force drives the expansion? As the size of the universe expands, rate of growth increases, driving expansion faster. What is the relationship of mass, velocity, distance and time? Time may be relative to velocity.

Masreliez (2006) suggests acceleration changes the four metrical coefficients in the Minkowskian line element. This means a new kind of dynamic process involves four-dimensional scale transition (SEC). Depending solely on velocity, this dynamic scale factor is [1-(v/*c*)2)]. It models inertia as a gravitational-type phenomenon. Inertia is resistance to accelerating motion - a cosmic drag that exerts tangible force. Inertia is a spacetime effect.

Einstein defended his theory that spacetime was a new form of ether that served as a reference for inertia. With this metric the geodesic of general relativity (GR) is an identity, and all accelerating trajectories are geodesics. This theory also agrees with special relativity, with a new perspective.

Dynamic 4-d scale transition is unproven, but solves many problems in cosmology with scale expansion. This solution to inertia is compatible with special relativity, also. The pace of time is regulated by time dilation in inertial frames, consistent with GR. Where does gravity come from? Inertia is a gravitational-type effect. Discrete scale transition offers us one way to think out of the box about this old connundrum.

**BIG QUESTIONS **

Why does everything want to expand? What is the distinction between energy particles (bosons) and matter particles (fermions)? Why do they behave differently? Is everything really a form of light? Photons are quantized bundles of radiant energy. What is the primal unborn particle and can we look even deeper into the chaotic virtuality?

What events are taking place hidden beyond the mystic veil of the vacuum? The infinitesimal motion of the vacuum exerts a holistic influence. Can we dig below the ground state? What is the nature of this immense dimension of radiance? What is left when there is nothing left to dissolve? Unstable states decay by barrier penetration. Have we penetrated nature's final barrier yet? Is space immutable, self-created without location?

What is the texture of Reality, the scintillating fabric of spacetime? Quantum Mechanics suggests everything is rapidly expanding at the subatomic level. This is why a wave packet tends to fuzz out upon observation, since its position-momentum expands virtually instantly. Phase conjugate physics suggests localized time reversal and holographic fractal coherence.

New physics have developed which may or may not accurately describe the undefined field of the dynamic Vacuum State, which gives birth to matter. Some of these postulated conceptual fruits, exotica which may or may not be ‘real’, include: the Big Bang, inflation, dark matter, string and branes, red-shift, black holes, tired time, the ether, crystalline vacuum, free energy, etc. The Big Bang does not even account for spin.

Without the Big Bang, the strongest contender for a model that satisfies cosmology, Quantum Mechanics, GR and SR is the up-to-date data reflected in SEC theory. With Dark Energy, no Dark Matter is required. Dark Energy is likely the missing 70% of the energy density of the universe. It uniformly fills otherwise empty space. Strong candidates include a scalar cosmological constant or quintessence. Quintessence is a dynamic field with varying energy density in time and space.

Whatever it "is," Dark Energy permeates all space and exerts a strong negative pressure. It has implications for a new physics: 1) Unexpected astrophysics, 2) new aspects of spacetime and gravity, 3) gravity and the quanta of vacuum, 4) frontier of low-energy physics.

**Scale Expanding Cosmos & Non-Linear Acceleration **

The universe has growing pains. SEC supports, not a Big Bang, but perpetual existence. Its fundamental feature is cosmological scale equivalence. The cosmological scale changes in small and rapid increments, so the SEC could be modeled by GR. It explains why time progresses. Time expands relative to time with scale invariance, which makes it unnoticeable. Incrementally increasing scale makes time progress in discrete scale increments. Redshift is not recession, but but an expanding spacetime effect. The slowing progression of time induces cosmological energy.

In a scale-invariant expanding cosmos, many of these artifactual phenomena evaporate because they are unnecessary in this simpler model as corrections or approximations. The potential for tapping Radiant Energy increases. Time is quantized; a quantum of time = 1x10^-88 (Thomas, 2007). This doesn't mean time is discontinuous but that time *is* a quantum potential. Time dilation contains potential energy. What is called dark matter is probably a crude first approximation of quantized time.

Time can change with reference to mass and distance. In nature, time is always expressed in quanta, such as frequency, vibrations, transitions. Potential time energy is transduced into dynamic spatial energy as cosmic jitter (ZPE; zitterbewegung), cosmic acceleration, radiant energy, and mass. All quantum frequencies are processing time potential.

**It's About Time**

an impossibly small quantization, on the order of 10^-88, is also assumed

Research suggests we may eventually be able to tap the flow of time, itself. Some speculate that in a scale expanding cosmos (SEC), radiant energy *is* time or close to it and non-EM. We suggest a high frequency tunnel transistor with excess charge carriers is capable of tunneling under the junction barriers. It is much like sticking a waterwheel in time’s one way flow. Under ideal conditions, the the overunity of this system could be as much as 125%.

**Free Energy **

Free energy devices already exist. They are called "atoms". They spin furiously all the time because the universe is not at absolute zero / or time has not yet slowed to a crawl. In magnets, all the spins are lined up and all the generated magnetic fields add. But that doesn't do US any good; the energy cannot be extracted.

Free energy to transport, warm and entertain us remains an elusive treasure that is tantalizingly close. Radiant energy, streams of energy quanta, is a more plausible candidate for clean energy, however (2). Bearden suggests, point-contact transistors can easily be developed into true negative resistors enabling overunity.

**Gravitation **

Vacuum potential is not known. It is known and infinite only if you equate vacuum potential with time. Existence of gravitons is suspect. Gravitation may be a bundle of forces not closely related {Sakarov}. Anti-gravity is not negative gravity but loss of mass and may be the first differentiation from time. Slowing, decaying time creates matter which is exploding outward, as is space-time. The outward push is antigravity/slightly degraded time. We will discover antigravity and time travel together as they would be mostly identical.

If there is a particle associated with the 4 or 5 pseudogravitys, it would be the photon but could be called the graviton. Photons probably move at "c". Incompletely formed, semi-virtual photons {semi-scalars, radiant energy} might move at c squared *if *emerging from virtual or at any speed if lingering near virtual/real, QM-LIKE boundary, which they do seem to do.

So, c is only for photon and its antiparticle or photon and graviton; since there is no exterior difference between photon and pseudogravitational graviton - the difference being internal bending. Since the total number of supposed gravitons appears to equal the total number of photons, the left-over geometric gravitation is REAL gravity or slightly decayed time.

Space is the instantaneous effect of creation of outward rushing matter by time, which is thus slowed. Some of it becomes indistinguishable {at present} from space-time. As time slows more, more space-time is created. Time's arrow may not be reversible. Light may or may not vary in speed.

**Kaluza-Klein Model **

Since we cannot observe information coming from unseen dimensions, we are missing information to complete our description of reality and of the time dimension. Seeking to unify Gravitation and EM, Kaluza-Klein offers an elegant geometrical model that is invariant in circular rotation. In KK five-dimensional Schwarzschild solutions should not be interpreted as black holes.

The KK vacuum decays into a geodesically complete space. But the holes form spontaneously and expand instantly to infinity at the speed of light. Technically, space does not exist inside these bubbles. KK and SEC, which both include a scalar field, are both thoroughly incompatible with string and M-theory. KK's fifth dimension is a compactified space. EM can be described as a circular bundle by gauge theory.

KK is not limited to 4 and 5 dimensional models and may be modeled with 11-d. 5d KK can be used to model unknown gravitomagnetism now demonstrable in micro-, meso- and macro- scales. Problems with the Ricci tensor as it moves from GR to QM to SEC remain to be worked out. Both KK and DGP are higher dimensional theories of GR with a scalar component. In DGP theory, gravity may be 4-d over short distances and 5-d over long distance. This unstable theory hints at the cosmic acceleration of dark energy.

**What A Drag**

Cosmic drag in SEC is partly or entirely gravitomagnetism; ether drag. Theoretically, there is an analog to the magnetic field in gravity. This is sometimes called gravitomagnetism, and other times called frame dragging. Gravitomagnetism = frame dragging = cosmic drag. Beyond is only the microworld of QM.

Cosmic drag is just the distubance in the subspace field from anything OF ANY SIZE that spins. The "any size" part is the key concept. It has already been proven in pieces by groups unaware of each other (cite examples). It means that drag – gravitomagnetism -- is a general phenomenon that permeates everything like gravity.

**As Above; So Below **

Its effects are not limited to quantum effects, or the microworld. This is a fundamental shift in conceptualization. It changes the environment of all virtual and realtime entities. Its as if the strong nuclear force dimension had suddenly unfurled and you could use it like electricity for motors and lights. Cosmic drag is the revelation of SEC -- new AND unexpected. Spin is SEC/cosmic drag, frame dragging, gravitomagnetic force.

Gravitomagnetism is established on the mesoscale and almost proven to be due to spin alignment and acceleration by addition of magnetic field. Gravitomagnetic tapping of time/gravity is more plausible than harnessing zero-point energy (ZPE) through magnetic energy. Frame dragging is established on all scales micro meso and macro. This is identical with the cosmic drag in SEC theory. Curled dimensions as a mathematical convenience are not required because **the #5 macrodimension is the bridge to QM**. It is 11-d but a different 11-d than strings or M-theory.

### What's New with My Subject?

**REFERENCES & LINKS**

**C. JOHAN MASRELIEZ**

**www.springerlink.com/index/P0714143L6735978.pdf**

**The SCALE EXPANDING COSMOS Theory**

**SECII Cosmic Drag**

**http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V11NO4PDF/V11N4MA2.pdf**

**SECIII Gravitation **

**http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V11NO4PDF/V11N4MA3.pdf**

**SECIV General Relativity**

**http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V12NO1PDF/V12N1MAS.pdf**

**SECV Inertial Force**

**http://redshift.vif.com/JournalFiles/V13NO1PDF/V13N1MAS.pdf**